A Silent Revolution in Reflexivity
Karl H. Müller
Currently, a transition from Science I, the traditional science regime from the 16th century onward to the turn of the 20th century, to Science II, the emerging new epistemic regime since 1900/1950, is on its way. This transition has been described, so far, as a complexity revolution. However, this transition can also be classified as a reflexivity revolution in multiple dimensions and practically across all scientific disciplines. Reflexivity is characterized by a circular configuration between two components x, y like in x causes y and y causes x or between a single building block like in x ? x. The current reflexivity revolution manifests itself, above all, in a new form of science, called second-order science, which fulfils vital functions for the overall science system in terms of quality control, of creating robust forms of knowledge and of providing challenging new research problems and large opportunities for innovations.