|The Collaborative Future|
Thomas Marlowe, Norbert Jastroch, Susu Nousala, Vassilka Kirova
Collaboration has become an important goal in modern
ventures, across the spectrum of commercial, social, and
intellectual activities, sometimes as a mediating factor, and
sometimes as a driving, foundational principle. Research,
development, social programs, and ongoing ventures of all sorts
benefit from interactions between teams, groups, and
organizations, across intellectual disciplines and across facets
and features of the inquiry, product, entity, or activity under
consideration. We present a survey of the state of collaboration
and collaborative enterprise, in the context of papers and
presentations at the International Symposium on Collaborative
Enterprises 2011 (CENT 2011), and the extended papers
appearing in this special issue.
Towards the definition of a Science Base for Enterprise Interoperability:
A European Perspective
Research on Enterprise Interoperability (EI) has evolved to
meet real pragmatic needs to support the ever more
collaborative nature of, for example, enterprise supply chains,
and virtual enterprises. Research outputs have therefore
focused on generating solutions to current problems, rather
than to developing a body of knowledge which is structured for
ease of re-use.
In Europe there is move to define just such a structure: an
Enterprise Interoperability Science Base (EISB). We explore
here the current state of this ongoing research, reviewing the
understanding gained so far, and looking to the likely future
outcomes. However this is clearly not just a European research
domain. The main purpose of presenting the European
perspective is to stimulate interaction with researchers in all
regions who have an interest in the domain.
We therefore address three issues. We review the development
of neighbouring sciences, identifying science base structures,
and methodologies for their development. The definition and
objectives of a science base are analysed, leading to an outline
structure for an EISB to include formalised problem and
solution spaces as well as structured EI domain knowledge.
Twelve Scientific Themes of EI are identified and the current
state of research in each is briefly discussed.
A Methodology for Engineering Competencies Definition
in the Aerospace Industry
Laura Fortunato, Serena Lettera, Mariangela Lazoi, Angelo Corallo, Giovanni Pietro Guidone
The need to cut off lead times, to increase the products innovation, to respond to changing customer requirements and to integrate new technologies into business process pushes companies to increase the collaboration.
In particular, collaboration, knowledge sharing and information exchange in the Aerospace Value Network, need to a clear definition and identification of competencies of several actors. Main contractors, stakeholders, customers, suppliers, partners, have different expertise and backgrounds and in this collaborative working environment are called to work together in projects, programs and process.
To improve collaboration and support the knowledge sharing, a competencies definition methodology and the related dictionary result useful tools among actors within an extended supply chain. They can use the same terminology and be informed on the competencies available. It becomes easy to specify who knows to do required activities stimulating collaboration and improving communication.
Based on an action research developed in the context of the iDesign Foundation project, the paper outlines a competency definition methodology and it presents examples from the implementation in Alenia Aeronautica company.
A new definition of competency is suggested supporting by a new method to specify the structural relationship between competencies and activities of aeronautical processes.
Plato, Socrates, Hunt, and Rotfeld: Eigenforms of Academic Collaboration
M Louise Ripley
A number of academic institutions profess to offer Interdisciplinary Studies but few truly achieve it, and not without a great deal of effort over and above the normal workload of a professor and a level of patience and perseverance not found in many university students. This paper will report on a successful academic collaboration between two very different disciplines: philosophy and business. It will examine a course taught jointly by the two disciplines in a strategy of imbrication attempted by a college of York University in Toronto, Atkinson College, housing both liberal arts and professional school.
Collaborative Integration of Classic Applications in Virtual Reality Environments
When working collaboratively with others, it is often difficult to
bring existing applications into the collaboration process. In this
paper, an approach is shown how to enable different applications
to work collaboratively. It enables a user to do three things: First,
the ability to work collaboratively with the application of choice,
selecting those applications that fit the need of the scenario best,
and the user is comfortable to employ. Second, the user can
work in the environment he chooses, even if the application is
not specifically designed for this environment like Virtual Reality
Environments or mobile devices. Third, the technology presented
makes it possible to mesh applications to gain new functionalities
not found in the original applications by connecting those applications
and making them interoperable. Taking a Virtual Reality
Environment and a standard office application, the use and fitness
of this approach is shown. It should be specifically noted
that the work underlying this paper is not specifically on multimodal
usage of Virtual Environments, although it is used that way
here, but rather showing a concept of meshing application capabilities
to implement “Meta-Applications” that offer functionality
beyond their original design.
Product, Knowledge and Risk
Norbert Jastroch, Vassilka Kirova, Cyril S. Ku, Mojgan Mohtashami, Thomas J. Marlowe, Susu Nousala
Inter-organizational collaboration is no longer entirely a free choice, but is close to a necessity imposed by economic, technical, and knowledge-related concerns. A deep understanding of collaboration will assist in making intelligent decisions on entering, operating, and evaluating collaborative ventures. The nature of the partners—industrial corporations, consultants, academic institutions and others—and the collaborative structure are important, but so too is the nature of the product. We consider its effects in the collaborative domain on knowledge, intellectual property, and catastrophic risk.
Dams, Flows and Views: Cross-Aspect Use of Knowledge in Collaborative
Norbert Jastroch, Vassilka Kirova, Thomas Marlowe, Mojgan Mohtashami
Collaboration between organizations raises significant
knowledge management issues, especially in software
development of complex projects, in which both product and
process are themselves knowledge. While research has
examined direct, explicit flows of knowledge within project
aspects, or forward between aspects, there is less investigation
of the need and support for backward, implicit or emergent
Metrics Are Needed for Collaborative Software Development
Mojgan Mohtashami, Cyril S. Ku, Thomas J. Marlowe
There is a need for metrics for inter-organizational collaborative software development projects, encompassing management and technical concerns. In particular, metrics are needed that are aimed at the collaborative aspect itself, such as readiness for collaboration, the quality and/or the costs and benefits of collaboration in a specific ongoing project. We suggest questions and directions for such metrics, spanning the full lifespan of a collaborative project, from considering the suitability of collaboration through evaluating ongoing projects to final evaluation of the collaboration.
|A Cooperation Model Applied in a Kindergarten|
Jose I. Rodriguez, Pablo Nuño
The need for collaboration in a global world has become a key
factor for success for many organizations and individuals.
However in several regions and organizations in the world, it
has not happened yet. One of the settings where major
obstacles occur for collaboration is in the business arena, mainly
because of competitive beliefs that cooperation could hurt
profitability. We have found such behavior in a wide variety of
countries, in advanced and developing economies. Such
cultural behaviors or traits characterized entrepreneurs by
working in isolation, avoiding the possibilities of building
clusters to promote regional development.
The needs to improve the essential abilities that conforms
cooperation are evident. It is also very difficult to change such
conduct with adults. So we decided to work with children to
prepare future generations to live in a cooperative world, so
badly hit by greed and individualism nowadays.
We have validated that working with children at an early age
improves such behavior. This paper develops a model to
enhance the essential abilities in order to improve cooperation.
The model has been validated by applying it at a kindergarten
Collaborative Engineering of Inter-Enterprise Business Processes
Gunter Teichmann, Eva-Maria Schwartz, Frank-Michael Dittes
Enterprise 2.0 and cloud computing are two of the last years most popular topics. Researchers and Business Analysts see great opportunities and potential for a kind of business application revolution. Unfortunately the revolution has not started yet due to different reasons – for example the lack of concepts for integrating new ideas into the already known principles. We are convinced that combining the power of cloud computing with principles of social networking and methodology of business engineering will open new horizons for the global value creation. This paper describes a concept how cloud computing technology can be used to support new ways of inter-enterprise collaboration using the example of logistics.
Do I know where I am going and why?
Connecting Social Knowledge for Governance and Urban Action
Susu Nousala, Amir Morris, William Hall, Roger Hadgraft
This paper seeks to expand our focus to
understand how communities can assemble
and manage knowledge to support more
rational decisions regarding government
services and actions in the community
environment. We focus on the knowledge
transfer interface between communities and
urban councils, with a view to extending
theoretical understanding of such transfers,
and the socio-technical knowledge support
systems interfacing between action groups
Utilizing theory from several previous
domains we discuss how science does not
exist in a vacuum. It is surrounded by
philosophy, theology (although not always
popular to recognise today) and art as a
beginning. These diverse areas have
undergone parallel developments and as
they do so the tools and techniques to
investigate and explore these areas have
also progressed in parallel. Following the
movement of the modern western world this
paper utilizes a broad comparison using
science, branches of mathematics,
philosophy and art, with additional
comparisons with theology.
Knowledge management - an often abused
expression - is more than just data
collection, in- formation presentation, or
simple pathways beyond this. Rather it
involves the efficient juxtaposition of
background information and the value
adding of presentation to enhance explicit
understanding in a dynamic manner.
This paper goes one step further than
normally considered, by investigating
approaches to cognition in the data
management areas and human cognition
requirements and advantages. As society
evolves, the requirements for successful
presentation of data evolve, and yet the raw
data amounts can also be effectively
presented in new and more compressed
manners. So the total information presented
can actually increase exponentially and may
become easier to understand.
Finally explicit modern examples are
utilised to demonstrate the effect of the
altered approaches through the distinct time
periods and a simple juxtaposition of the
technological tools available in each period
are utilised to enhance the data
presentations. The end results are
considered and the effect that the technology
may have made to the recording and use of
the data and it
Tacit Knowledge Generation and Inter-Organizational Memory Development in a Supply Chain Context
In recent years, particular attention has been paid to knowledge management and organizational learning in general and tacit knowledge management and organizational memory in particular. This interest is driven by saturation of various markets, innovation speed and increasingly uncertain environments that have led companies to organize and structure themselves as parts of supply chains, by focusing on their core competencies and outsourcing non value-added and less strategic activities. Developing distinctive competencies under such circumstances comes from tacit knowledge learning, creation and memorization. In this paper, we first analyze tacit knowledge from different perspectives; we show how individuals and organizations can learn from tacit knowledge and how they also create new relational and collaborative tacit knowledge from individual, organizational and inter-organizational learning. We then explore how this knowledge can be capitalized into inter-organizational memory which is independent of individuals and organizations within the supply chain.
Video conference platforms: A tool to foster collaboration during inter-organizational in vivo simulations
Cecilia Lemus-Martinez, Louise Lemyre, Paul Boutette, Jo Riding, David Riding, Celine Pinsent, Colleen Johnson
Inter-organizational problem solving of emergencies and extreme events are complex research fields where scarce experimental data is available. To address this problem, the Inter-GAP In Vivo System, was developed to run behavioural experiments of complex crisis. The system design and testing included three categories of participants: for pilot testing, first year university students; for theoretical validity, college students engaged in emergency management programs; and for field validity, expert decision makers who managed major crises. A comparative assessment was performed to select the most suitable video conferencing software commercially available, since it was more cost-efficient to acquire a tool already developed and customized it to the experiment needs than it was to design a new one. Software features analyzed were: ease of use, recording capabilities, format delivery options and security. The Inter-GAP In Vivo System setup was implemented on the video conference platform selected. The system performance was evaluated at three levels: technical setup, task design and work flow processes. The actual experimentation showed that the conferencing software is a versatile tool to enhance collaboration between stakeholders from different organizations, due to the audiovisual contact participants can establish, where non verbal cues can be interchanged along the problem solving processes. Potential future system applications include: collaborative and cross – functional training between organizations.
Connections, Information and Reality: Thinking about the internet of things
Ben Van Lier
The number of connections between people, organizations and technology is proliferating rapidly, and the amount of information they produce, exchange and share is increasing accordingly. These connections and the information they produce are defining and shaping our daily life and work and our perception of reality. Computers in all forms are becoming smaller and less visible, but they are omnipresent. This development of information technology ‘everyware’, as Greenfield calls it, is also referred to as ubiquitous computing. With the development of ubiquitous computing, computers not only disappear from our perception, but also from our experience. When these new and almost invisible technological devices are tied together, for instance in the Internet of Things, the information resulting from that connection will be more than the sum of its parts. The Internet is the place where subjects are connected and where they exchange and share information. With the development of the ‘Internet of things’, the Internet will also connect objects and enable them to exchange and share information. In this Internet of the future, subjects and objects are more and more connected in random coalitions and networks on the basis of information. These new connections and their seamless exchanging and sharing of information will challenge traditional organizational structures. The information produced in networks will be used for changes to our existing reality and will help create a new reality. Will this development of subjects and objects connected in networks raise new questions and challenges for science and for the development of knowledge within a changing reality?
Conceptions and Context as a Fundament
for the Representation of Knowledge Artifacts
It is a well-known fact that knowledge is often not
objective and not context-independent. However, in
many application systems knowledge is treated as
objective and independent. In this paper it is argued
that subject and context dependencies of knowledge
need to be re
ected in knowledge representation.