Journal of
Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics

 ISSN: 1690-4524 (Online)    DOI: 10.54808/JSCI


Academic Globalization And Ice: Cross-Cultural Research And Transnational Education
Marta Szabo White
Pages: 1-6
As the Lion said to the Man, "There are many statues of men slaying lions, but if only the lions were sculptors there might be quite a different set of statues." - Aesop Commensurate with Aesop’s message of the sculptor matters, so does the communicator, the language and surprisingly, business context. The evolution from the experientially-based Cultureactive to the theoretically-based ICE, from first-generation to second-generation, this paper underscores the marriage of cross-cultural research and transnational education. Both Cultureactive and ICE serve at the pleasure of Globalization, and more importantly, Academic Globalization and Transnational Education. The impetus for this paper derives from two pivotal questions: Does one’s professional lens create similarities more dominant than culture; and does English evoke responses significantly different from those of one’s native language. ICE emerged from Cultureactive when validity and reliability research issues became noteworthy. Known as the ABC research team, Adair, Buchan and Chen [1] & [2] capitalized upon both Hall’s low context/high context communication tool and Triandis’ model of subjective culture to result in the theoretical underpinnings for ICE. This conceptual reconfiguration is also grounded in the works of Trompenaars, Holtgraves, Hampden-Turner, Thomas and Kilman, Yamagishi, and Bearden, Money and Nevins [3], [11], [20], [22] & [24]. ICE implementation strategies include the employment of Myers Briggs typologies. The contribution of this paper is the celebration of the first year of ICE [InterCultural Edge], and its far-reaching ramifications. Previous research streams have underscored global similarities and differences among cultures, and a previous paper [23] established that cross-professional rather than cross-cultural differences are more paramount in assessing communication differences. This study employs Cultureactive and the LMR model, noting that business versus non-business context results in a more dominant impact on LMR profile than does nationality. Regardless of culture, persons involved in business are characterized primarily by linear-active modes of communication, and persons involved in non-business activities typically employ more multi-active/hybrid and less linear modes of communication. The pivotal question for academic globalization remains: Given ICE, are we in a better position to assess and predict leadership, negotiating styles, and communication behaviors, all of which are central to transnational education and cultivating global business leaders.

Visual Storytelling – Knowledge and Understanding in Education
Linnéa Stenliden, Mikael Jern
Pages: 7-13
This paper presents an ongoing research project of use and learning with geographic information visualization and Visual Storytelling (geovisual analytics) in education. The fully developed study will be applied in school settings in order to 1) customize the application for educational purpose, 2) improve the teaching in social science and 3) study teachers and students experiences and learning. - The application “Open Statistics eXplorer” will be used to improve the students knowledge and understanding of sophisticated statistical relations, - Teachers will be able to, individually and together, develop a dynamic teaching material through storytelling, through the web, - Students will be able to, with help of powerful geographical statistics, explore statistical relations on their own. A better understanding of how educators and their students can elicit deeper user understanding and participation by exploiting dynamic web-enabled statistics visualization is of importance. Results from an usability study in this project are promising. Together with the associated science of perception in learning in relation to the use of multidimensional spatio-temporal statistical data this research will contribute to the research fields of geovisual analytics as well as educational science.

The Utilization of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves for Global Communications
Robert M L Baker, Bonnie S. Baker
Pages: 14-21
For over 1000 years electromagnetic radiation has been utilized for long-distance communication. Smoke signals, heliographs, telegraphs, telephones and radio have all served our previous communication needs. Nevertheless, electromagnetic radiation has one major difficulty: it is easily absorbed. In this paper we consider a totally different radiation, a radiation that is not easily absorbed: gravitational radiation. Such radiation, like gravity itself, is not absorbed by earth, water or any material substance. In particular we discuss herein means to generate and detect high-frequency gravitational waves or HFGWs, and how they can be utilized for communication. There are two barriers to their practical utilization: they are extremely difficult to generate (a large power required to generate very weak GWs) and it is extremely difficult to detect weak GWs. We intend to demonstrate theoretically in this paper their phase-coherent generation utilizing an array of in-phase microelectro-mechanical systems or MEMS resonator elements in which the HFGW flux is proportional to the square of the number of elements. This process solves the transmitter difficulty. Three HFGW detectors have previously been built; but their sensitivity is insufficient for meaningful HFGW reception; greater sensitivity is necessary. A new Li-Baker HFGW detector, discussed herein, is based upon a different measurement technique than the other detectors and is predicted to achieve a sensitivity to satisfy HFGW communication needs.

Teaching to the Test: A Controversial Issue in Quantitative Measurement
Jennifer L. Styron, Ronald A. Styron
Pages: 22-25
discussion of the pros and cons of focusing curricular and pedagogical decisions primarily on mastery of those skills and concepts measured by standardized tests. This paper presents scholarly discourse based on testing systems and school accountability, along with a presentation of the advantages and disadvantages of what is commonly referred to as ‘teaching to the test.’ The authors of this document found research studies to be inconclusive with no clear indication of whether or not there is an advantage or disadvantage to the practice of teaching to the test. But most notably, the actual issue connected to this debate may be the lack of understanding of item-teaching and curricular teaching. In the mind of many educators, item teaching, curriculum teaching and teaching to the test are synonymous.

Opening a Can of Worms: The Schools/ Math/Science/ 2-4 year Colleges and the Job Market - Are We just ‘Fishing’ for Solutions?
Christine M. Yukech
Pages: 26-32
The content of this paper confronts some of the biggest problems educators face in the teaching of math and science. The article focuses on a grass roots method called the Algebra project. The Algebra project has improved algebra skills among groups of students who are either steered away from upper level math or who may not ever have the chance to take an advanced math course. According to the data by the department of labor and statistics many jobs are going unfilled. This paper discusses where the jobs are, the courses that are the gateway to employment and the skill sets students need to fill the jobs. Math and science courses need to be used as a tool for liberation of such a problem. We have to ask ourselves why we have a society where only a small group of students are prepared for their future. We need to determine where the knowledge gap is and provide courses that prepare students for the job market and transfer credit from the 2 year to 4 year colleges. This paper also looks at factors that effect change, who the change agents are and what mind set implement solutions.

How to Motivate Science Teachers to Use Science Experiments
Josef Trna
Pages: 33-35
A science experiment is the core tool in science education. This study describes the science teachers’ professional competence to implement science experiments in teaching/learning science. The main objective is the motivation of science teachers to use science experiments. The presented research tries to answer questions aimed at the science teachers’ skills to use science experiments in teaching/learning science. The research discovered the following facts: science teachers do not include science experiments in teaching/learning in a suitable way; are not able to choose science experiments corresponding to the teaching phase; prefer teachers’ demonstration of science experiments; are not able to improvise with the aids; use only a few experiments. The important research result is that an important motivational tool for science teachers is the creation of simple experiments. Examples of motivational simple experiments used into teachers’ training for increasing their own creativity and motivation are presented.

Digital Storytelling: The Arts and Preservice Teachers
Vito M. Dipinto, Kaki Dipinto, Jennifer Rios
Pages: 36-38
In this presentation, the authors describe a journey of teachers in a graduate Fine Arts Methods course. The journey began with conversations about what art is and the nature of collections in exploring this question. Elements of visual literacy, storytelling and music were investigated. The final product was a Digital Story incorporating all of these elements into a teaching artifact that integrated the Arts into other content areas for K-8 students.

Design Of An Aerodynamic Measurement System For Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Airfoils
L. Velázquez-Araque, J. Nožička
Pages: 39-44
This paper presents the design and validation of a measurement system for aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles. An aerodynamic balance was designed in order to measure the lift, drag forces and pitching moment for different airfoils. During the design process, several aspects were analyzed in order to produce an efficient design, for instance the range of changes of the angle of attack with and a small increment and the versatility of being adapted to different type of airfoils, since it is a wire balance it was aligned and calibrated as well. Wind tunnel tests of a two dimensional NACA four digits family airfoil and four different modifications of this airfoil were performed to validate the aerodynamic measurement system. The modification of this airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. Therefore, four different locations along the cord line for this blowing outlet were analyzed. This analysis involved the aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients curves as a function of the angle of attack experimentally for the situation where the engine of the aerial vehicle is turned off, called the no blowing condition, by means of wind tunnel tests. The experiments were performed in a closed circuit wind tunnel with an open test section. Finally, results of the wind tunnel tests were compared with numerical results obtained by means of computational fluid dynamics as well as with other experimental references and found to be in good agreement.

Engineering of an Extreme Rainfall Detection System using Grid Computing
Olivier Terzo, Lorenzo Mossucca, Adriana Albanese, Piero Boccardo, Nishshanka Prasanna Premachandra, Rossella Vigna
Pages: 45-49
This paper describes a new approach for intensive rainfall data analysis. ITHACA’s Extreme Rainfall Detection System (ERDS) is conceived to provide near real-time alerts related to potential exceptional rainfalls worldwide, which can be used by WFP or other humanitarian assistance organizations to evaluate the event and understand the potentially floodable areas where their assistance is needed. This system is based on precipitation analysis and it uses rainfall data from satellite at worldwide extent. This project uses the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis dataset, a NASA-delivered near real-time product for current rainfall condition monitoring over the world. Considering the great deal of data to process, this paper presents an architectural solution based on Grid Computing techniques. Our focus is on the advantages of using a distributed architecture in terms of performances for this specific purpose.

International Mathematical Internet Olympiad
Alexander Domoshnitsky, Roman Yavich, Vadim Bugaenko, Alexei Kannel-Belov
Pages: 50-54
Modern Internet technologies open new possibilities in wide spectrum of traditional methods used in mathematical education. One of the areas, where these technologies can be efficiently used, is an organization of mathematical competitions. Contestants can stay at their schools or universities and try to solve as many mathematical problems as possible and then submit their solutions through Internet. Simple Internet technologies supply audio and video connection between participants and organizers.

Did Your Mailed Ballot Count: The Unrecognized Unreliability of Voting By Mail
Alec Yasinsac
Pages: 55-60
Voting By Mail (VBM) was developed to support absentee voters. It was originally intended to handle canonical absentee voters who now fall under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Voting Act (UOCAVA) and those with legally acceptable reasons for being unable to appear at the polls on Election Day. Its use slowly expanded to more casual justifications, such as those with planned Election Day travel. More recently, there has been a trend of further expansion to on-demand VBM in many states. As a result, the percentage of VBM ballots has skyrocketed, with little research regarding its impacts on security, privacy, reliability, and accuracy on U. S. elections. In virtually every close election, the outcome must await tabulation of VBM ballots. Yet, VBM may be the least reliable voting approach in wide spread use today. Vote By Mail fraud is recognized by some as possibly the single greatest security vulnerability in U. S. elections. The lack of in-person, at-the-polls accountability makes absentee ballots the tool of choice for those inclined to commit fraud," the Florida Department of Law Enforcement concluded in 1998, after a mayoral election in Miami was thrown out when officials learned that "vote brokers" had signed hundreds of phony absentee ballots.1 Conversely, others recognize theoretical weaknesses in VBM, but generally dismiss its practical impact [1, 2]. Others continue to promote VBM expansion [3, 4]. In this paper, we identify inherent, widespread vulnerability in VBM systems and illustrate their practical impact with numerous examples. We show specifically why VBM systems are not auditable and demonstrate how their unreliability can negatively impact real elections.

Data security in Intelligent Transport Systems
Tomas Zelinka, Miroslav Svitek, Zdenek Lokaj, Martin Srotyr
Pages: 61-67
Intelligent Transport Services expect availability of the secure seamless communications solutions typically covering widely spread areas. Different ITS solutions require different portfolio of telecommunications service quality. These parameters have to correspond with ITS service performance parameters required by specific service. Even though quite extensive range of public wireless data services with reasonable coverage are provided, most of them are provided with no guaranteed quality and security. ITS requirements can be in most parameters easier reached if multi-path communications systems are applied core solution is combined with both public as well as private ones where and when it is needed. Such solution requires implementation of relevant flexible system architecture supported by the efficient decision processes. This paper is concentrated the telecommunications security issues relevant to the ITS wide area networking. Expected level of security varies in dependence on relevant ITS service requirements. Data volumes transferred both in private data vehicle on board networks as well as between vehicles and infrastructure (C2I) or other vehicles (C2C) progressively grow. Such trend upsurges the fatal problems appearance probability in case security of the wide area networks is not relevantly treated. That is reason why relevant communications security treatment becomes crucial part of the ITS solution. Besides of available “off shelf” security tools we present solution based on non-public universal identifier with dynamical extension (time and position dependency as an autonomous variables) and data selection according to actor role or category. Presented results were obtained within projects e-Ident1, DOTEK2 and SRATVU3.

Endomycorrhizal Inoculation Effect On Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), OAT (Avena sativa L.), And Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Growth Cultivated In Two Soil Types Under Greenhouse Conditions
Abdul Khalil Gardezi, Sergio R. Marquez-Berber, Benjamín Figueroa-Sandoval, Adolfo Exebio-García, Ulises Larqué-Saavedra, Miguel Escalona-Maurice
Pages: 68-72
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on oat, beans, and wheat. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soil types from San Luis Potosí State were used, one was red (Xerosol), and the other one was grey (Litosol). With and without Glomus intraradices inoculation. Three bean cultivars: Pinto Saltillo, Bayo comercial and Flor de Mayo; Chihuahua (oat variety); and Tlaxcala wheat genotype were planted. The experimental design was factorial complete randomized block and three replications. The result showed that bean yield (average 3.7 g plant-1), pod number and dry weight, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, and aerial part dry weight were positively affected by the inoculation with Glomus intraradices, but not by soil type. A similar trend was observed in root length, volume and dry weight, and in the nodule number. In relation with the species studied, Phaseolus vulgaris varieties had higher values than wheat and oats in growth and yield variables evaluated. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices) gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The soil types studied did not affect significantly plant responses in this study.

Securing Video Delivery to the Android Platform
Raimund K. Ege
Pages: 73-79
The Android smartphone platform has gained significant market share among mobile devices with high-speed network connectivity. In this paper we describe Oghma, which is an Android application to make multimedia data, i.e. video, easily accessible. It uses a peer-to-peer content delivery model to ensure efficient delivery to a large audience. However, the openness of delivery demands adaptive and robust management of intellectual property rights. In this paper we describe a framework and its implementation to address the central issues in content delivery: a scalable peerto- peer-based content delivery model, paired with a secure access control model that enables data providers to maintain control over their original content available. Our prototype implementation for the Android platform for mobile phones is described in detail.

Delay Time Analysis of Reconfigurable Firewall Unit
Tomoaki Sato, Phichet Moungnoul, Masa-Aki Fukase
Pages: 80-84
A firewall function is indispensable for mobile devices and it demands low-power operations. To realize this demand, the authors have developed a firewall unit with a reconfigurable device. The firewall unit needs a large amount of register for the timing adjustment of packets. Using the registers is the cause of power consumption. In this paper, to solve the problem of power consumption, the firewall unit has developed by using wave-pipelining technique and detailed delay time for the technique is analyzed.

Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers
Bazara I. A. Barry
Pages: 85-91
Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

Distributional Properties of Stochastic Shortest Paths for Smuggled Nuclear Material
Leticia Cuellar, Feng Pan, Fred Roach, Kevin Saeger
Pages: 92-98
The shortest path problem on a network with fixed weights is a well studied problem with applications to many diverse areas such as transportation and telecommunications. We are particularly interested in the scenario where a nuclear material smuggler tries to succesfully reach her/his target by identifying the most likely path to the target. The identification of the path relies on reliabilities (weights) associated with each link and node in a multi-modal transportation network. In order to account for the adversary’s uncertainty and to perform sensitivity analysis we introduce random reliabilities. We perform some controlled experiments on the grid and present the distributional properties of the resulting stochastic shortest paths.