Journal of
Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics

 ISSN: 1690-4524 (Online)    DOI: 10.54808/JSCI


3D Visualization of Engendering Collaborative Leadership in the Space
Aini-Kristiina Jäppinen
Pages: 1-7
The paper focuses on collaborative leadership in education and how to illustrate its engendering process in a three-dimensional space. This complex and fluid process is examined as distributed and pedagogical within a Finnish vocational upper secondary educational organization. As a consequence, the notion of distributed pedagogical leadership is used when collaborative leadership in education is studied. Collaborative leadership is argued to consist of the innermost substance of a professional learning community, as attributes of a group of people working together for specific purposes. Therefore, collaborative leadership naturally involves actors, activities, and context. However, the innermost substance of the community is the crux of leadership. It is here presented in the form of ten “keys”, as ten attributes with several operational nuances. The keys are highly interdependent and a movement in one of them has an effect both on every other key and the whole. Within this framework, the paper provides a presentation of selected study results by means of the 3D program Strata. The visualizations illustrate concrete examples of how the keys relate to the reality in the vocational education organization in question. For this, a novel analysis called Wave is used, based on natural laws and rules of physics.

Optimal Combination of Glycan-Based Serum Diagnostic Markers Which Maximize AUC
Marko I. Vuskovic, Haofei Fang, Harvey I. Pass, Margaret E. Huflejt
Pages: 8-13
Recently a new high-throughput biomarker discovery platform based on printed glycan arrays (PGA) has emerged. PGAs are similar to DNA arrays but contain deposits of various carbohy-drate structures (glycans) instead of spotted DNAs. PGA-based biomarker discovery for the early detection, diagnosis and prognosis of human malignancies is based on the response of the immune system as measured by the level of binding of anti-glycan antibodies from human serum to the glycans on the ar-ray. Since the PGA offer a multitude of markers which can have moderate individual diagnostic power they can be combined in order to achieve maximal classification precision assessed by the popular performance measure area under the ROC curve (AUC). This paper presents an empirical analysis of several combination approaches including those that are specifically designed to maximize the AUC and those that are not, such as Fisher Linear Discriminant, Support Vector Machines and Gen-eralized Linear Model. The analysis is performed on real-life PGA data from three pilot studies involving malignant mesothe-lioma, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.

Near-Field Coupling Communication Technology For Human-Area Networking
Ryoji Nagai, Taku Kobase, Tatsuya Kusunoki, Hitoshi Shimasaki, Yuichi Kado, Mitsuru Shinagawa
Pages: 14-18
We propose a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses near-field coupling TRXs. This technology aims to achieve a „touch and connect” form of communication and a new concept of “touch the world” by using a quasi-electrostatic field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body. This paper explains the principles underlying near-field coupling communication. Special attention has been paid to common-mode noise since our communication system is strongly susceptible to this. We designed and made a common-mode choke coil and a transformer to act as common-mode noise filters to suppress common-mode noise. Moreover, we describe how we evaluated the quality of communication using a phantom model with the same electrical properties as the human body and present the experimental results for the packet error rate (PER) as a function of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) both with the common-mode choke coil or the transformer and without them. Finally, we found that our system achieved a PER of less than 10-2 in general office rooms using raised floors, which corresponded to the quality of communication demanded by communication services in ordinary office spaces.

Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Predictive-Hashing Based Multicast Authentication Protocol
Seonho Choi, Hyeonsang Eom, Edward Jung
Pages: 19-24
A predictive-hashing based Denial-of-Service (DoS) resistant multicast authentication protocol was proposed based upon predictive-hashing, one-way key chain, erasure codes, and distillation codes techniques [4, 5]. It was claimed that this new scheme should be more resistant to various types of DoS attacks, and its worst-case resource requirements were derived in terms of coarse-level system parameters including CPU times for signature verification and erasure/distillation decoding operations, attack levels, etc. To show the effectiveness of our approach and to analyze exact resource requirements in various attack scenarios with different parameter settings, we designed and implemented an attack simulator which is platformindependent. Various attack scenarios may be created with different attack types and parameters against a receiver equipped with the predictive-hashing based protocol. The design of the simulator is explained, and the simulation results are presented with detailed resource usage statistics. In addition, resistance level to various types of DoS attacks is formulated with a newly defined resistance metric. By comparing these results to those from another approach, PRABS [8], we show that the resistance level of our protocol is greatly enhanced even in the presence of many attack streams.

Inspiring and Challenging Laboratory Exercise in Multivariable Control Theory – The Four-rotor Helicopter
Dag A. H. Samuelsen, Olaf H. Graven
Pages: 25-29
Engineering students in a module on multivariable control theory are given a laboratory exercise for developing their skills in practical implementation of control systems. This is done in an effort to create a more complete module that gives the students experiences in the practical sides of implementing control systems, while still being theoretically challenging and inspiring. Presenting students with this kind of real-life challenges like sub-optimal models, limited processing time and large degree of uncertainty, is a challenging task, partly due to the need of adapting the level of complexity to the student or group of students doing the exercise in order to keep them engaged throughout the exercise, and in part due to the university’s need to reduce expenses related to the administration, supervision, and execution of laboratory exercises. The possibility of adapting the complexity of the exercise to each student’s skill level is important, both through the design of the exercise and through the students choosing between different models. The eager student might be tempted by the better performing, but more complex models, while the struggling student can find satisfaction in stabilising the aircraft using the less complex models. The laboratory setup presented uses low-cost components, giving low investment and maintenance costs.

A Teaching and Learning Model: A World Sociology Evidenced by Linking Common Social and Societal Realities through the Reciprocity of Thinking and Feelings
Marjorie S. Schiering
Pages: 30-35
This paper is designed to assist in the comprehension of learners’ being multi-faceted persons who are unique. Discovering the whole individual is incumbent upon realizing the teaching/learning environments. This is respective of academic and socio-societal factors, which establish who one is as a learner and teacher. The author proposes and explains the concept of each individual being one who thinks and feels simultaneously with reciprocity existing within and between these two skills—so strongly that it is often difficult to separate one from the other. It’s proposed that each of us experiences an interconnectedness and, in many cases, an interdependency with respect to the commonality of social and societal realities within academic and other environments. These interconnections form a world sociology, which is realized by our thinking and feelings. Cross culturally, each one of us being exposed to a mutuality of needs is based in part upon belief and value systems. As one’s education evolves, each becomes his/her experiential past with respect to thinking, feeling, actions taken or inactivity’s that result in behaviors which define one as an individual learner and teacher. The overall purpose of this paper is to empower the thinker, the learner and the teacher by presenting “Teaching and Learning: A Model for Academic and Social Cognition” (Schiering, Bogner, Buli-Holmberg, 2011). This presents a comprehensive theoretical framework of academic and social cognition, as a basis for effective learning and teaching with implications for practice, as the author maintains that the purpose of theory is to guide practice.

Web Based Research Mapping and Analysis: ICT-AGRI’s Meta Knowledge Base Centralizes ICT and Robotics Development in Agriculture and Related Environmental Issues
Koen C. Mertens, Jürgen Vangeyte, Stephanie Van Weyenberg, Christiane Von Haselberg, Martin Holpp, Renate L. Doerfler, Iver Thysen
Pages: 36-39
Ample research is conducted on ICT, automation and robotics in agriculture and related environmental issues. ICT and Robotics innovations are rapidly emerging and have the ability to revolutionize future farming through their major impacts on productivity and profitability. Unfortunately human and financial resources and efforts are fragmented and limited. This led to the creation of the ICT-AGRI ERA-NET that provides a central structured framework. Its main objective is to strengthen and coordinate European research regarding ICT and robotics in agriculture. Besides the creation of the Meta Knowledge Base (MKB), a common European research agenda will be developed and common research calls are launched. The Meta Knowledge Base ( is attempting to map all relevant research and development within the selected research area. To accomplish the mapping, two types of information are collected: research profiles and research postings. To organize the postings, a three-dimensional task-technology oriented framework was designed. The results indicated that the three axes: task, technology and scope seemed insufficient to describe the whole research area. Therefore, an improved framework was developed. By extending the task-technology oriented framework with a process-control–information system, a useful framework was designed.

Final Comparison Study of Teaching Blended In-Class Courses vs. Teaching Distance Education Courses
Susan J. Martin
Pages: 40-46
This paper will share with the members of the conference the findings from the final study. This study contains five semesters of analyzed data which compares the retention of students, final grades for students, grades for five specific tasks that were given in blended in-class courses and in the totally online courses, and a comparison of data by GPA, gender, and by class level. All courses were American Politics PLSC 111. Each semester one or two American Politics courses were conducted in the classroom and one American Politics distance education course was conducted totally online. Each time the courses were given, it was during the same semester and by the same professor who is the researcher.

Web-based education in Spanish Universities. A Comparison of Open Source E-Learning Platforms.
José María Fuentes, Álvaro Ramírez-Gómez, Ana Isabel García, Francisco Ayuga
Pages: 47-53
Web-based education or „e-learning‟ has become a critical component in higher education for the last decade, replacing other distance learning methods, such as traditional computer training or correspondence learning. The number of university students who take on-line courses is continuously increasing all over the world. In Spain, nearly a 90% of the universities have an institutional e-learning platform and over 60% of the traditional on-site courses use this technology as a supplement to the traditional face-to-face classes. This new form of learning allows the disappearance of geographical barriers and enables students to schedule their own learning process, among some other advantages. On-line education is developed through specific software called „e-learning platform‟ or „virtual learning environment‟ (VLE). A considerable number of web-based tools to deliver distance courses are currently available. Open source software packages such as Moodle, Sakai, dotLRN or Dokeos are the most commonly used in the virtual campuses of Spanish universities. This paper analyzes the possibilities that virtual learning environments provide university teachers and learners and offers a technical comparison among some of the most popular e-learning learning platforms.

Information Security Service Branding – beyond information security awareness
Rahul Rastogi, Rossouw Von Solms
Pages: 54-59
End-users play a critical role in the effective implementation and running of an information security program in any organization. The success of such a program depends primarily on the effective implementation and execution of associated information security policies and controls and the resultant behavior and actions of end-users. However, end-users often have negative perception of information security in the organization and exhibit non-compliance. In order to improve compliance levels, it is vital to improve the image of information security in the minds of end-users. This paper borrows the concepts of brands and branding from the domain of marketing to achieve this objective and applies these concepts to information security. The paper also describes a process for creating the information security service brand in the organization.

Tablet PC Support of Students’ Learning Styles
Shreya Kothaneth, Ashley Robinson, Catherine Amelink
Pages: 60-63
In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

Language Philosophy in the context of knowledge organization in the interactive virtual platform
Luciana De Souza Gracioso
Pages: 64-67
Over the past years we have pursued epistemological paths that enabled us to reflect on the meaning of language as information, especially in the interactive virtual environments. The main objective of this investigation did not specifically aim at the identification or development of methodological tools, but rather the configuration of a theoretical discourse framework about the pragmatic epistemological possibilities of study and research in the Science of Information within the context of information actions in virtual technology. Thus, we present our thoughts and conjectures about the prerogatives and the obstacles encountered in that theoretical path, concluding with some communicative implications that are inherent to the meaning of information from its use, which in turn, configure the informational activities on the Internet with regard to the existing interactive platforms, better known as Web 2.0, or Pragmatic Web.

A Real-Time Performance Analysis Model for Cryptographic Protocols
Amos Olagunju, Jake Soenneker
Pages: 68-75
Several encryption algorithms exist today for securing data in storage and transmission over network systems. The choice of encryption algorithms must weigh performance requirements against the call for protection of sensitive data. This research investigated the processing times of alternative encryption algorithms under specific conditions. The paper presents the architecture of a model multiplatform tool for the evaluation of candidate encryption algorithms based on different data and key sizes. The model software was used to appraise the real-time performance of DES, AES, 3DES, MD5, SHA1, and SHA2 encryption algorithms.

A Statistical Model for Energy Intensity
Marjaneh Issapour, Lori L. Scarlatos, Herbert F. Lewis
Pages: 76-81
A promising approach to improve scientific literacy in regards to global warming and climate change is using a simulation as part of a science education course. The simulation needs to employ scientific analysis of actual data from internationally accepted and reputable databases to demonstrate the reality of the current climate change situation. One of the most important criteria for using a simulation in a science education course is the fidelity of the model. The realism of the events and consequences modeled in the simulation is significant as well. Therefore, all underlying equations and algorithms used in the simulation must have real-world scientific basis. The “Energy Choices” simulation is one such simulation. The focus of this paper is the development of a mathematical model for “Energy Intensity” as a part of the overall system dynamics in “Energy Choices” simulation. This model will define the “Energy Intensity” as a function of other independent variables that can be manipulated by users of the simulation. The relationship discovered by this research will be applied to an algorithm in the “Energy Choices” simulation.

Data Mining Tools in Science Education
Premysl Zaskodny
Pages: 82-87
The main principle of paper is Data Mining in Science Education (DMSE) as Problem Solving. The main goal of paper is consisting in Delimitation of Complex Data Mining Tool and Partial Data Mining Tool of DMSE. The procedure of paper is consisting of Data Preprocessing in Science Education, Data Processing in Science Education, Description of Curricular Process as Complex Data Mining Tool (CP-DMSE), Description of Analytical Synthetic Modeling as Partial Data Mining Tool (ASM-DMSE) and finally Application of CPDMSE and ASM-DMSE via Physics Education.

Nurturing Opportunity Identification for Business Sophistication in a Cross-disciplinary Study Environment
Karine Oganisjana, Tatjana Koke
Pages: 88-93
Opportunity identification is the key element of the entrepreneurial process; therefore the issue of developing this skill in students is a crucial task in contemporary European education which has recognized entrepreneurship as one of the lifelong learning key competences. The earlier opportunity identification becomes a habitual way of thinking and behavior across a broad range of contexts, the more likely that entrepreneurial disposition will steadily reside in students. In order to nurture opportunity identification in students for making them able to organize sophisticated businesses in the future, certain demands ought to be put forward as well to the teacher – the person who is to promote these qualities in their students. The paper reflects some findings of a research conducted within the frameworks of a workplace learning project for the teachers of one of Riga secondary schools (Latvia). The main goal of the project was to teach the teachers to identify hidden inner links between apparently unrelated things, phenomena and events within 10th grade study curriculum and connect them together and create new opportunities. The creation and solution of cross-disciplinary tasks were the means for achieving this goal.

Coding Methods for the NMF Approach to Speech Recognition and Vocabulary Acquisition
Meng Sun, Hugo Van Hamme
Pages: 94-99
This paper aims at improving the accuracy of the non- negative matrix factorization approach to word learn- ing and recognition of spoken utterances. We pro- pose and compare three coding methods to alleviate quantization errors involved in the vector quantization (VQ) of speech spectra: multi-codebooks, soft VQ and adaptive VQ. We evaluate on the task of spotting a vocabulary of 50 keywords in continuous speech. The error rates of multi-codebooks decreased with increas- ing number of codebooks, but the accuracy leveled off around 5 to 10 codebooks. Soft VQ and adaptive VQ made a better trade-off between the required memory and the accuracy. The best of the proposed methods reduce the error rate to 1.2% from the 1.9% obtained with a single codebook. The coding methods and the model framework may also prove useful for applica- tions such as topic discovery/detection and mining of sequential patterns.