Journal of
Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics

 ISSN: 1690-4524 (Online)    DOI: 10.54808/JSCI


New Electronic Technology Applied in Flexible Organic Optical System
Andre F. S. Guedes, Vilmar P. Guedes, Simone Tartari, Mônica L. Souza, Idaulo J. Cunha
Pages: 1-4
The synthesis and application of new organic materials, nanostructured, for developing technology based on organic devices, have been the main focus of the scientific community. In recent years, the first polymeric electronics products have entered the market (organic semiconductor materials) and there are some electrochromic devices among them that have been called smart windows, once they control the passage of light or heat through a closed environment as an ordinary window. The main functional aspect of electrochromic devices, when being used in architectural and automotive industry, is to control the passage of light and temperature with thermal and visual comfort. These devices can be flexible and very thin, not containing heavy metals, and formed by layers of organic material deposited in several architectures. In this study, the electro-deposition of organic materials in the Polyaniline, PANI case, which provide stability in optical and electrical parameters, was utilized with the means of developing prototypes of organic electrochromic devices. These materials were characterized by: ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy absorption (UV-Vis), measurement of thickness (MT) and electrical measurements (EM). This study aims to establish the relationship between the thickness of the active layer and the value of the electrical resistivity of the layer deposited through an electro-deposition technique. The experimental results enabled the equating of the electrical resistivity related to the thickness of the deposited layer. The linear fit of these results has expressed the thickness of the conducting layer, a, and the lowest value of the electrical resistivity, ß, associated with the gap between the valence band and the conduction band. Thus, the results have demonstrated that, when the layer of organic material is completely conductive, we may obtain the thickness of the organic material deposited on the substrate.

The Internet as Social System: Applying Margaret Archer's Theory of Morphogenesis to Hypermedia Communication
Dee Pratt
Pages: 5-9
While there is a growing recognition amongst information and communication technology (ICT) researchers that computer systems are designed for and situated in social practices, the Internet tends to be viewed as an artefact, with the focus being on its technical and material aspects. This paper explores the notion whether the Internet is not only, as an artefact, an element in the nexus of relationships comprising the social structure in which we operate, but in itself a social system informing a social structure. This is because the Internet has all of the qualities which Margaret Archer’s theory of morphogenesis, building on Roy Bhaskar’s critical realist philosophy, attributes to social structures. However, this paper comes to the conclusion that the Internet, being a techno-system with social attributes, is not in fact a social system, but should rather be viewed as the mechanism which sets in place the communicative sub-structure provided by the World Wide Web. The “web” is a true social structure, that of communication, being both the context for and product of human interaction, offering us positions and practices which are analogous to our roles in real-world functioning, but which are deepened, extended and transformed by use of ICT.

Near Real Time Discovery and Conversion of Open Source Information to a Reward Matrix
Mark Rahmes, Kathy Wilder, Harlan Yates, Kevin Fox
Pages: 10-15
We describe a system model for determining decision making strategies based upon the ability to perform data mining and pattern discovery utilizing open source information to automatically predict the likelihood of reactions to specific events or situational awareness from multiple information sources. Within this paper, we discuss the development of a method for determining actionable information to efficiently propitiate manpower, equipment assets, or propaganda responses to multiple application case scenario experiments. In our experiments, we have integrated open source information linking to human sentiment and manipulated other user selectable interlinking relative probabilities for different reactions to different events based upon current knowledge generated from the situation or event. The goal of our solution, called GlobalSite, is to deliver trustworthy decision making analysis which evaluates situations and potential impacts of such decisions through acquired open source information becoming a vital tool for continuing mission operations, analyst information or other decision making scenarios.

A Model of Inter and Multi Disciplinary Domains, and their Mutual Interactions
Ophir Dan
Pages: 16-20
The Melvil Dewey Decimal Classification system maps the human knowledge domains into a library classification decimal system, which means that the knowledge is discretized. The domains are countable similarly to how Cantor proved the countability of the fractions’ domain.
The debate about the “inter-” and “multi-” disciplinary domains may also be extended into “sub-domains” or from another point of view – into “super-domains”.
However, Science and Technology has rapidly developed after it was classified. If at the beginning, two decimal digits were enough to classify the world's knowledge into a knowledge domain, today we need more digits – about five. This means we are able to display about a million domains of knowledge. The decimal point indicates the sub-division in the zooming-in; the number of such decimal points is unlimited. Thus, the number of hierarchical levels in the knowledge-tree is unlimited. The maximal level is unreachable since it propagates in time.
This intriguing issue raises doubts whether the tree is the most appropriate structure in the current state of the knowledge classification. However, I believe that the knowledge tree is a convenient way of expressing various connections between the knowledge domains. There are other models such as multi-level graph-networks that approximate closer to reality. These models can be further visualized by graph diagrams.
The knowledge diagram is more complicated, considering the interaction between science and industry relative to each domain.
The model of reality might be compared to the object-oriented programming languages approximating reality in order to construct more naturally computer programs that can model the world.
The mutual correspondence of the knowledge domains is dynamic. Some examples of relatively new domains are as follows: biotechnology, bioinformatics, nanotechnology, integro-differential equations, data warehouse, data mining, requirements engineering, micro biology, and bio-chemistry. There is an overlap between the various domains.
The phrase "humans know less about more and more about less" represents the trend of future science and technology. Another interesting phrase is "an image is worth a thousand words." Figures 1 and 2 show the possible relationship between the knowledge domains represented by various geometrical objects and their properties such as color, form, perimeter type, and position.
Research and design are two complementary human activities that, from the dawn of history, have improved Western civilization. New discoveries and research were made possible by former technological innovations. Many areas of research mutually upgrade and improve themselves in a positive feedback loop. However, mathematical proofs represent a different kind of a symbiotic research-design relationship.

Discovery of Strong Association Rules for Attributes from Data for Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)
Shen Lu, Alfred Sears, Joseph Radich, Richard Segall, Thomas Hahn
Pages: 21-26
The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) (2013)[6] study aimed to find out if the program we designed for the 11 month treatment can efficiently help people lose weight, and even can keep tracking of weight loss and body fat by checking some of the parameters we measured during the 11 months. We worked on the potentially significant parameters for weight loss in 11 months, such as age, height, weight, body size and body fat. We used association rule mining and classification rule mining to discover which parameters are significant for weight loss and what are the associations between weight loss and those significant parameters. Experimental results showed that weight loss with support from 0.2 to 0.9 and confidence from 0.7 to 1.0 is related to body weight and the changes of chest size, arm size, waist size, thigh size and hip size. In future, we will discover the associations among body weight, body size, body fat, heart beat and blood pressure.

Interactive Level Design for iOS Assignment Delivery: A Case Study
Anson Brown, Alireza Tavakkoli, Donald Loffredo, Hashimul Ehsan
Pages: 27-38
This paper presents an application of an iOS-based online gaming assignment in a real classroom. The core concept of the project is a gameplay environment involving two players that have full control over creation and modification of levels. This level design mechanism was implemented in an iOS-based game in the area of genetics and based on an existing written assignment. The game includes support for both instructors, who have the ability to create and post assignments and students, who can take the assignments. Two trials of the iOS application consisted of in-class testing of twenty- one students. Students first took the original paper assignment, followed by the iOS version. Start times, end times, and grades were recorded for both versions. A comprehensive study of the grades and times for the iOS version of the assignment versus the paper version was conducted and is presented in this paper. Our Study showed that the iOS version was completed much faster in nearly every case while a strong delivery mechanism is needed to ensure student grades and completion of the assignment will not be affected. These results are not unexpected due to some major difference between the two formats. Future updates and additions will address any currently existing issues.

Towards an Understanding of the Impacts of Localized Real Case Studies
Mathews Nkhoma, Narumon Sriratanaviriyakul, Hiep Cong Pham, Tri Khai Lam, Quynh Bao Nhu Nguyen
Pages: 39-45
This research aims to understand the mediating roles of learning engagement, learning process and learning experience in influencing students’ outcomes through case study pedagogy. It gathered students’ responses to localised real case studies discussed in Information Systems classes. Case knowledge and perception were used to measure students’ learning outcomes in order to determine the degree to which students induced course concepts and how they felt the cases impacted their understanding of the course. Revised student engagement questionnaire was used to measure various forms of engagement such as skills, emotion, participation, and performance while revised study process questionnaire served to assess the extent to which students used deep or surface approach to learning. Additionally, seven roles of feedback were used to analyse students’ learning experience. Finally, group performance and individual's positive perceptions of group learning were tested to measure students’ learning outcomes. Structural equation modelling was used to test the causal model. Analysis revealed that case knowledge and case perception had positive influence on students’ skill engagement and emotional engagement but only case knowledge had a positive impact on the functions of feedback.

Computational Analysis of the 2415-3S Airfoil Aerodynamic Performance
Luis Velázquez-Araque, Jirí Nožicka
Pages: 46-51
This paper deals with the numerical simulation of the two-dimensional, incompressible, steady air flow past an airfoil for a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with internal propulsion system. This airfoil results from a NACA 2415 four digits family base airfoil modification [7] and has a propulsive outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. The analysis involved the airfoil’s aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficient curves as a function of the angle of attack (AOA) for the condition where the engine of the UAV is turned off called the gliding condition and also for the blowing propulsive condition by means computational fluid dynamics. The computational domain has been discretised using a structured mesh of 188 x 200 tetrahedral elements. The RNG k-ε model is utilized to describe the turbulent flow process as it was followed in [5]. The simulations were held at a Reynolds number of 300000. Results allowed obtaining lift and drag forces and pitching moment coefficient and also the location of the separation and reattachment points in some cases by means of the wall shear stress on the suction surface as well as velocity contours and streamlines for both conditions at different angles of attack, from 0 to 16 degrees with the smallest increment of 4 degrees. Finally, results from both cases were compared and the influence of the propulsive flow on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil has been analysed turning out that it improves significantly the performance of the airfoil reaching values up to 1,8 times in terms of lift at high angles of attack.

[5] Rhie C.M., Chow W.L., Numerical Study of the Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil with Trailing Edge Separation, AIAA Journal, Vol. 21, No. 11, 1983.

[7] Velazquez L., Nožicka J, Kulhanek R., Oil and Smoke Flow Visualization past Two-Dimensional Airfoils for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, in The 11th Asian Symposium of Visualization. Niigata, Japan. 2011.

Time and Frequency Resource Allocation Using Graph Theory in OFDMA Wireless Mesh Networks
Miri Priesler (Moreno), Arie Reichman
Pages: 52-57
A wireless network with a mesh topology works reliably and offers redundancy. In modern broadband wireless mesh networks that use MIMO and OFDMA techniques, the problems of time, frequency, and space resource allocations are different from a cellular system and more complicated due to system architecture and distributed control and management. This paper focuses on the resource allocation problem of the OFDMA system and we define the term of separability order. For simple topologies like the square grid configuration, the allocations are simple and an optimal solution can be shown, but for an arbitrary architecture we need advanced tools and we use Graph Theory tools to present two different algorithmic solutions, to allow frequency reuse.

The Peer Review Process: An Expanded Role for Repositories
Joanna Richardson, Malcolm Wolski
Pages: 58-62
Peer review has been regarded as a cornerstone of scientific research for a considerable time. Journals seeking to attract high quality scholarship rely on peer review to maintain their credentials in the publishing industry. However, over a period of time—and especially given the advent of the Internet—complaints have arisen from authors, reviewers and even editors as to the efficacy of the system. The authors outline a range of models which have evolved that either complement or replace evaluation processes which characterise traditional peer review. Research data is presented in the context of quality assessment. The authors introduce several approaches which are utilising repositories to support the process. Consideration is given as to how this might change the current institutional repository environment.

Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions
A. K. Gardezi, S. R. Márquez-Berber, B. Figueroa-Sandoval, G. Almaguer-Vargas, U. Larqué-Saavedra, M. J. Escalona-Maurice
Pages: 63-68
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p=0.05) in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p=0.05) on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

Interactive Pre-Simulation Strategies: Engaging Students in Experiential Learning from the Start
Beverly J. D. Bye
Pages: 69-75
Decrease in clinical nursing facilities created a need to develop supplemental real-life patient scenarios outside of the traditional nursing units. Over the past five years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of simulation exercises integrated into the clinical and classroom aspect of nursing education. However, many students are not engaged and are not effectively participating in the simulation. Many students state they are perplexed and do not understand the purpose and roles of simulation, and often do not take it seriously. The challenge to nurse educators is to develop realistic goals and objectives with a variety of activities that occur prior to the actual simulation experience Debriefing is one of the most important aspects of the simulation activity, but if students are not participating, then the learning is not occurring. The key with simulation is to engage students through the use of various strategies that incorporate visual, auditory, tactile, and cognitive learning prior to the simulation experience. This study investigated the use of interactive pre-simulation strategies such as concept mapping, group discussion, teaching, and body mapping prior to the simulation experience. The focus of this research was on student success and knowledge acquisition. The most important overall goal is to engage students prior to the simulation experience in a safe, nonthreatening learning environment in order to allay students’ fear of failure and ultimately increase knowledge, retention, and critical thinking. Results of the study have implications on the development and integration of innovative teaching pedagogies.

Separation-Mixing as a Model of Composition Evolution of any Nature
Tomas G. Petrov
Pages: 76-81
Model of separation-mixing is applicable when studying the compositional evolution of systems of different nature, from physicochemical to the social ones. To display the processes, RHAT information language-method is proposed; it takes into account at the same point on the chart an indefinitely wide variation of components and their quantity. The possibilities of the model application are showed.

Creative Engineering for 2020
Sami Khorbotly, Mark M. Budnik
Pages: 82-90
The United States National Academy of Engineering's seminal work, The Engineer of 2020 – Visions of Engineering in the New Century, was written to prepare industrial, governmental, and academic institutions for the future of engineering. The authors of the report state, “Emphasis on the creative process will allow more effective leadership in the development and application of next-generation technologies to problems of the future.” In 2011, 2012, and 2013, engineering undergraduates from the Valparaiso University College of Engineering (Valparaiso, Indiana, USA) participated in a four-day off-site course focused on creativity, innovation, teamwork, and leading the creative process. The course was taught by members of the engineering faculty and included sessions and on-location tours (near Orlando, Florida) that were led by instructors from an external training organization. Pre- and post-course surveys identify a significant improvement in the students' understanding of the roles of creativity, innovation, and the roles of leadership, communication, and teamwork in the creative process.