According to the pathogenesis of hepatitis B, a mathematical model describing the relationship between hepatitis B virus(HBV) and the cellular immune response to the infection is built based on Nowak’s population dynamics model of immune responses to persistent viruses. The model has two possible equilibrium states: complete recovery (HBV will be eliminated from the body entirely), uninfected and infected hepatocytes coexisting state. The stability condition of each equilibrium points is discussed. Different set of parameters satisfied the different conditions is used in the simulation and the results show that the model can interpret the wide variety of clinical manifestations of infection: acute hepatitis, fulminant hepatitis, acute–turn-chronic hepatitis, chronic hepatitis without acute phase, recurring hepatitis, and so on. Both immunomics and infectomics may be involved in the underlying mechanisms. The model suggests that a rapid and vigorous CTL response is required for resolution of HBV infection.