Journal of
Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics



Plasma Tectonics and Electric Geology: Some Context on Geoplasma Research of Global Electric Circuits
Bruce Leybourne
(Pages: 1-6)

Has anyone ever wondered why tornado outbreaks generally occur in the Spring, while hurricane season is in the Fall? The tilting of the Earth’s North Pole towards the Sun in the Spring activates the northern global circuits connected to North America, while the tilting of the Earth’s South Pole towards the Sun in the Fall activates the southern global circuits connected to the ocean basins. Tornados spawn on the North American continent, hurricanes spawn in the oceans. This simple relationship belies the significant effects of the global electric circuits on our planet. Many earthquakes are linked to this circuit switching mechanism, especially when active solar induction affects from sweeping coronal hole Birkeland currents occur in conjunction with the switch. The Geoplasma Research Institute’s goal is to bring this research to the forefront of scientific discussions assisting NCGT-Journal and IMCSI in unraveling the relationships between our worst natural disasters and global electric circuits. The, March 2020 – Invited Session – “Plasma Tectonics and Electric Geology” provided the opportunity to open this discussion. Many thanks to the organizers of the International Multi-Conference on Society Cybernetics and Informatics (IMSCI)! This paper relates surprising geophysical evidence within an electrodynamic framework that provides context for integrating the wide-ranging contributions by many authors in this invited session.

Introduction to Plasma Tectonics & Electric Geology: Solar Wind Coupling to Planetary Circuits Lightning Tells the Stellar Transformer Story
Bruce Leybourne, Giovanni Gregori
(Pages: 7-13)

Plasma Tectonics, Electric Geology, and Stellar Transformer concepts evolve from Earth Endogenous Energy theory by Gregori, Where self-organizing anode tuffs, (biological analogy to “sea-urchin spikes”) project from the Earth’s core, considering plasma convection as tidally generated Joule Heating at the tips of the “spikes”. Like a soldering iron creating heat, magmas, and earthquakes. Expanding these circuits - by connecting the vertical “spike” Z-component, to a radial X-component (Oceanic Fractures) and axial Y-component (North-South Mid-Ocean Ridges & Island Arcs) reveal the Stellar Transformer concept. Where radial induction is driven by incoming polar space weather, while solar magnetism variation drives axial induction. Thus, simple step down energy induction occurs between Sun and Earth, much like the transformer process that steps down your household energy from the power company. Diurnal Solar Induction along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) and Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) drive Lightning Hotspots telling the Stellar Transformer story.

Orthogonal Megatrend Intersections: “Coils” of a Stellar Transformer (Extended) – Investigating the Southeast Indian Ridge Circuit
N. Christian Smoot, Bruce Leybourne
(Pages: 14-25)

According to the plate tectonic hypothesis, Fracture Zones (FZs) are considered transform faults that lie perpendicular to mid-ocean ridge axes; that is, they show the direction of seafloor spreading. Bathymetric maps of the Pacific Ocean basin exhibit a multitude of latitudinally trending FZs as well as longitudinally trending FZs on the Pacific plate. Analysis reveals that oceanic rises and plateaus generally sit atop the intersections associated with these leaky magmatic FZ intersections, exhibiting continental blocks, large igneous outpourings, and/or tectonic vortex structures at the intersections. Linear seamount chains correspond directly with many of these FZs. Thus, by the early 1980s many FZs were found to be active features with magma leakage along trend, shifting the concept that linear seamount chains must form as hot spot traces. With these clues and near total multi-beam bathymetry coverage in some ocean basins along with 1st order Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite (GEOSAT) structural trends the concept of intersecting megatrends evolved. How can the plate be spreading in several directions at the same time? Additionally, these megatrends are shown to continue into the continents, such as the Murray and Mendocino FZs in the northeastern Pacific, intersecting and crossing, the San Andreas Fault trend in California. The intersecting megatrends exhibit magnetic anomaly patterns related to magmatic intrusive/extrusive events not necessarily corresponding to seafloor foundation of Archean (original lithosphere) crust 4 – 2.5 billion years ago. Evidence of orthogonally intersecting megatrends coupled with a dubious interpretation of seafloor magnetic lineation age hypothesis leads investigators toward a more robust explanation of tectonic events. By understanding plasma tectonics is driven by space weather, where orthogonal FZs act as “coils” of a Stellar Transformer. The intersecting megatrends exhibit magnetic anomaly patterns reflecting ages of magmatic extrusion events into original Archean crust within the continents and ocean basins. In the ocean basins much of this Archean crust appears to have been “stripped off” from repeated Interplanetary Lightning strikes (static electricity), or Arc Blasts. A new paradigm emerges linking solar induction and space weather drivers of seismic and volcanic energies, the timing and global distribution of lightning data demonstrates a Solar Induction affect along these megatrends considered as “Coils” of the Stellar Transformer.

The Paleo Dutton Plateau: A Geomorphologic Conundrum
N. Christian Smoot
(Pages: 26-31)

Guyots on the Dutton Ridge are used to explain the pre-existence of a plateau in the NW Pacific region. The idea was basically proposed in a 1983 paper but was not proven until the discovery of the basin-wide N-S fracture zone/mega-trends and the orthogonal intersections in the 1990s. The proposal is based on the multibeam sonar-based morphology itself and the intersections of both E-W Mendocino/Surveyor megatrends and N-S Udintsev/Kashima megatrends converging there.

History of Electric Geology
Larry White, Robert Hawthorne Jr.
(Pages: 32-37)

Electric Geology is considered the study of rocks generated or altered by past or ongoing electrical processes resulting in present day rock formations with telltale signs of very strong electrical processes at work. Since 1950 with the publishing of the controversial book, Worlds in Collision by Immanuel Velikovsky, proponents of his theories have conducted field investigations for evidence in opposition to what is considered the more standard or conventional geophysical processes with a slower electrical valence transfer of charge considered in normal crystallization and weathering processes. Michael Steinbacher, a most excellent photographer, was an electric universe devotee during the early formation of the Thunderbolts team. He is credited as an original investigator of the Arc Blast phenomena, who first began a series of extensive field investigations first posting to the Thunderbolts forum in 2008. Arc Blast is generally considered an extreme event of the Electric Geological process whereby Interplanetary Lightning or Static Electricity is considered the causal agent of large i.e. planetary-scale Electric Geological processes. Hypotheses on what triggers an Arc Blast vary, but may include wandering interstellar objects that transfer charge directly in passing, a plasma event triggered from the Sun, shifting orbits changing electro-magnetic potentials, discharge during impacts or collisions, increase charge density of surrounding interstellar space etc. The end result is a planet scarred by electric carve-outs during extreme Plasma Tectonic events.

Electric Discharge - Not an Impact Caused Formation of Upheaval Dome, Canyonlands National Park, Utah (Extended)
Robert Hawthorne Jr.
(Pages: 38-50)

This paper will provide an argument that Upheaval Dome, Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA is a product of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM). Currently two theories remain from a myriad of possible theories for the site’s formation, the first being a prehistoric salt diapir, or dome that has completely eroded away; the second theory being that of impact origin from either a meteor or even a comet. This paper will provide evidence for a more plausible theory that electric discharge can provide the temperatures and forces necessary to shock quartz crystals similar to those found in meteorites and other tektites. Experimental evidence will be provided from an individual who uses a low-pressure chamber to form cratering patterns and demonstrates Transient Lunar Phenomenon (TLP), or moon flashes, without impacts. Information will be given on fulgurites, or rocks formed from lightning and are melted into glass. Also, how this vitrification mechanism can be attributed to a new form of the mineral analcime, commonly called the Obsession Stone, which is considered as possible ejecta from the Upheaval Dome site.

Electric Earthquakes? The Case of Hyogo Ken Nambu (Japan)
Valentino Straser, Kazunori Miura
(Pages: 51-55)

Understanding the complex mechanism of Earthquake phenomenon, as in all the natural systems on the Earth, does not necessarily depend on a single cause, but on a set of factors. This study is aimed at investigating the electrical phenomena that could trigger, accompany and follow an actual seismic event, with the focus of research on strong Earthquakes on a global scale of magnitude equal to or greater than 7. The variables analyzed in this study are different but the focus of the research has focused on three aspects. The first concerns the state of transition of the Olivine to about 10 km of depth and the release of electric charges and heat; the second analyzes the influence of the variation of the duration of the day; and a third analysis concerns the implication of electrical phenomena that may be at the basis of Earthquake triggering, in particular, the earthquakes of magnitude equal to or greater than 7. Another analysis of the strong earthquakes that occurred in 2018 concerned the Earth’s Aphelion and Perihelion, linked to the Length of Day (LOD). The results showed that electrical phenomena play an important role in triggering Earthquakes

Atmospheric Plasmas that Precede Earthquakes in Seismically Active Areas
Valentino Straser
(Pages: 56-61)

The question that arises in this study is whether there is a potential relationship between the formation of ball lightning (BL) or plasmoids that occur in the atmosphere before earthquakes. Luminous phenomena occur in various parts of the world and a few years ago they are attracting the interest of a growing number of scientists. The physical mechanism that regulates the luminous phenomenon has not yet been fully understood and various hypotheses are being formulated in this regard. The anomalous luminous phenomena in the atmosphere show to have a relationship with the orientation of faults in tectonically active areas and with magnetic anomalies, but also in correspondence of hydrocarbon deposits. The light balls consist of "spheres" of different sizes, stationary or in motion with variable speeds. The ball lightning, by constitution, can be associated with plasmas that violate their neutrality condition, and manifest themselves in particular areas of the earth globe such as in Texas, Norway and the Po Valley and the Northern Apennines in Italy, which represent the area of research investigation. The spectrography of the light balls indicates the presence of gases such as hydrogen, oxygen and methane, associated with local seismic activity.

Using Jet Stream’s Precursors to Make Earthquake Forecast
Hong-Chun Wu, Bruce Leybourne
(Pages: 62-65)

Using Jet stream’s precursors, seismic locations are identified. Our research indicates that an interruption of the velocity flow lines occurs just above the epicenter approximately 3 months prior to Earthquake events. The duration of this phenomenon is approximately 6 – 12 hours. The average distance between epicenters and Jet stream’s precursors is about 100 km. We explain these relationships while reviewing 8 successful Earthquake forecasts recently. For example:
M8.3 Chile EQ on 2015/09/16;
M6.6 Taiwan EQ on 2016/02/05;
M7.0 Kumamoto, Japan EQ on 2016/04/15;
M6.2 Italy EQ on 2016/08/24;
M7.1Alaska EQ on 2018/11/30;
M6.7 Chile EQ on 2019/01/20;
M6.3 Japan EQ on 2019/01/08;
M7.1 LA EQ on 2019/07/06.
According to the hypothesis of Lithosphere-Atmosphere- Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC), when the Jet streams pass over the active epicenter region, the faults release radioactive material (ionized gases) to the atmosphere, causing a series of physical and chemical reactions, resulting in temperature and pressure changes in the atmosphere, Jet streams, and electric field effects in the ionosphere. A Solar Induction mechanism affecting the Eastern and Western Pacific Rims where most of the Earthquakes were successfully forecast is explored in electrical terms with a proposed Plasma Tectonics model.

Global Disaster Forecasting with Space Weather & Geophysical Intelligence
Bruce Leybourne, David Orr
(Pages: 66-71)

There are many opportunities to integrate Space Weather data into global weather and Natural Disaster Forecasting models. The Earth as a Stellar Transformer Hypothesis builds on the Global Electrical Circuit model. Evidence suggests Geo-magnetism is strongly related to solar activity or transformer induction events. This paper explores links between Space Weather events and Geo-magnetism to improve Natural Disaster Forecasting. We present case studies to better understand the possible precursors to Natural Disasters such as Earthquakes, Hurricanes and certain types of Wildfires, related to Coronal Mass Ejections. While the science of accurate forecasting is dependent on many variables, which this paper does not address, we have attempted to uncover a possible missing Space Weather link.

Multi-Parametric Earthquake Forecasting the New Madrid From Electromagnetic Coupling Between Solar Corona and Earth System Precursors
Bruce Leybourne, Valentino Straser, Hong-Chun Wu, Giovanni Gregori, Arun Bapat, Natarajan Venkatanathan, Louis Hissink
(Pages: 72-77)

Forecasting large earthquakes M ≥ 6.0 with satellite monitoring and Radio Direction Finding techniques of Electro-Magnetic (EM) precursors associated with earthquakes are possible. International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center ( consider phenomena driving earthquakes within a framework of strong solar EM coupling with the entire Earth system, through EM induction driving ionosphere-air-earth currents. Catastrophic earthquakes have repeatedly stricken the New Madrid Seismic Zone during the last 4 major solar hibernation cycles since 1400 AD. Research suggests another cycle of strong magnitude 6.0 to 8.0 earthquakes in the New Madrid region during the upcoming (~2021-2057), solar minimum period. The 1811–12 earthquakes, occurred in the midst of Dalton Solar Minimum (1793-1830), causing many types of ground failures including lateral spreading and ground subsidence by soil liquefaction across the Mississippi River flood plain and tributaries over 15,000km2. Studies by USGS and damage assessments by FEMA estimate damages to infrastructure approaching $600 billion. Common denominators between seismic precursors associated with a solar EM driver are found by analyzing data on ionization phenomena in areas under tectonic stress such as: Outgoing Long-wave Radiation (OLR); Total Electron Content (TEC); atmospheric effects, such as Jet Stream and other meteorological phenomena related to earthquake clouds and lights.

North American Solar Electro-Magnetic Induction Detection Network
Bruce Leybourne, Valentino Straser, Kenneth Jones, Hong-Chun Wu, Giovanni Gregori, Louis Hissink
(Pages: 78-83)

A Radio Finding Detection Network is proposed to detect Solar Electro-Magnetic (EM) Induction effects producing an electromotive force, or voltage, across ancient electrical conducting volcanic rock complexes underlying North America. Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP), climate change, hurricanes, tornadoes, lightning, earthquakes, volcanism, and certain types of wildfire outbreaks may be stimulated during a weakening of the solar magnetic field especially during the upcoming solar minimum, increasing Earth’s internal inductance power capable of driving much more violent events. This experimental testing is aimed at globally monitoring geophysical EM events to develop new forecasting methods. North American focus is on the New Madrid Fault, Florida hurricanes, and California wildfire and earthquakes, improving the science of natural disaster forecasting, management, investment, and governance, contributing to better resource-related negotiations and policy debates.

Earthquakes Linked to 2003 European Heat Wave: Implications for Global Warming - Evidence in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Basins (Revisited)
Bruce Leybourne, Bill Orr, Andy Hass, Pete Gruzinskas, David Lewis, Giovanni P. Gregori, N. Christian Smoot, Ismail Bhat
(Pages: 84-88)

New evidence reveals: 1.) Clustered earthquake patterns at the base of the lithosphere/upper mantle concentrated mostly within the ocean basins. 2.) Followed by Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies hypothesized to originate from underlying magma generation and seafloor heat release during hydrothermal venting. Joule heating at the base of the lithosphere created from electrical emanations deep within the core-mantle-boundary manifest as clustered earthquakes could provide the driving mechanism for elevated temperatures. Clustered earthquake swarms at 10km depths, which burst pulse over short, several days- to week-periods appear correlated to subsequent Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies and a reversal in Adriatic Sea circulation. Authors suggest this and other like events may be the natural drivers of global warming.

Tectonic Spiral Structures of the Tethyan Vortex Street (Revisited) GRACE Geoid Interpretations and African Lightning Teleconnections
Bruce A. Leybourne, N. Christian Smoot, Giovanni P. Gregori, Gabriel Paparo, Ismail Bhat
(Pages: 89-91)

The Tethyan Vortex Street (TVS) spiral structures (Fig. 1) are exemplified by 1.) Sestri Spiral, 2.) Aegean Spiral, 3). Kersihir Spiral, 4). Spiral of the Lut desert, 5). Tibesti Spiral, and 6). Arabia Spiral, [1, 2]. Counter-clockwise spiral structures of the TVS are also common features along the world-encircling vortex street [3]. The 6 spirals have associated gravity highs from GRACE geoid data (Fig. 2) and may be associated with active or dormant joule spikes [4]. Monthly geoid mgal values are data mined from GRACE missions between Feb. 2003 to Nov. 2005 and thermal expansion indicators are examined for each tectonic spiral, while external teleconnections to other gravitational and electrical indicators are sought. Annual flash rates of anomalous lightning over the Congo (Fig. 3) have a similar geospatial pattern and location to the geoid low exhibited in GRACE (Fig. 4). One observation is the joule spike heating elements are generally associated with GRACE gravity highs, while one of the largest lightning grounding areas in the Congo appears as a gravity low. GRACE gravitational teleconnections (Fig. 5) of the Congo and African Rift area exhibit strong teleconnection signals to the Aegean Spiral, while exhibiting weaker links to the Lut Spiral. Extreme amounts of lightning arcing into the mantle underneath Congo and telluric attraction to neighboring joule spikes in Uganda, supplies soldering rift energies which may be capable of anchoring the African continent, and may supply new theoretical evidence suggesting why Africa is considered the most stable of continents of the Pangean Breakup [5]. In addition, African lightning has been linked to tropical Atlantic cyclone formation [6] and unraveling some of these complexities may be possible (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7). Monitoring Acoustic Emissions (AE) [7] and electrical indicators at some key electrical sources and sinks may determine relevant timing information related to tropical hurricane activity.

The Australian-Antarctic Discordance (Revisited) – Pressurized vs. Non-Pressurized Ridge System
Bruce A. Leybourne, Michael B. Adams
(Pages: 92-96)

The axial morphology of the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) between Australia and Antarctica changes dramatically along 120oE to 127oE (Fig. 1). At approximately 127oE the ridge changes character along with a difference in water depth of about 1 km. Eastward it changes from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) type cross-section to an East-Pacific Rise (EPR) type cross-section (Fig. 2). The MAR profiles a bathymetric low (5- to 20-km wide, 500- to 1500-m-deep rift valley), while the EPR profiles a bathymetric high (10-km-wide, 500-m-high ridge). The MAR type extends westward to approximately 100oE and is called the Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD). This geomorphology is unique globally. The MAR is considered a slow-spreading center and like the AAD has similar segmentation characteristics of non-transform (small, <10 km) and transform discontinuous partitions of the ridge at 40 to 60 km. In contrast, the SEIR east of the AAD has segmentation characteristics of a fast-spreading center like the EPR. There are no transforms until 138oE, and westward propagating rifts are the only non-transform discontinuities.

Modeling Mantle Dynamics in the Banda Sea Triple Junction – Exploring a Possible Link to El Niño Southern Oscillation (Revisited)
Bruce A. Leybourne, Michael B. Adams
(Pages: 97-106)

The upwelling mantle within the Banda Sea is modeled using computer visualization techniques. The Banda Sea is considered a triple junction of the Pacific, Australian, and Eurasian Plates within the plate tectonic hypothesis. Evaluation of mantle depths from gravity and seismic studies indicates upwelling of mantle from approximately 30-40 km under the continental shelf of Australia to 21 km in the Banda Arc. From here the mantle rises to 14 km within the Weber Deep and finally reaches a depth of 7 km in the North Banda Sea. Seismic epicenter data delineate spatial boundaries of flow regimes and define magmatic migration routes. Epicenter magnitudes are visualized in 3 dimensions by color-coding. Topographic and bathymetric data from in-house sources define geographic position and geomorphology of the model domain, while altimetry data delineate the gravity field associated with a component of mantle dynamics using contour lines or interpolated color fields. Conceptual animation portrays upwelling and divergence of mantle flow structures (geostreams) underlying the tectonic trends of the region and the resulting counterflow within the volcanic arcs based on the surge tectonic hypothesis. This animation uses a series of color-coded arrows and particle systems to represent these flow structures in motion. Induced micro-gravity oscillations in the triple junction may be caused by planetary gravity waves. This phenomenon is explored to determine the coupling effects with the atmospheric pressure flux of the southern oscillation, which modulates El Nino.

El Niño Tectonic Modulation in the Pacific Basin (Revisited)
Bruce A. Leybourne, Michael B. Adams
(Pages: 107-112)

The Easter and Juan Fernandez microplates, two counterclockwise-rotating microplates along the East Pacific Rise, are driven by downwelling tectonic vortices, as explained by a more recent geophysical theory known as the surge tectonic hypothesis. These twin microplates underlie the high-pressure cell of the Southern Oscillation associated with El Nino. The Central Pacific Megatrend connects planetary-scale tectonic vortices underlying the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) pressure cells. It connects the East Pacific Rise across basin to the Banda Sea tectonic vortex. The Banda Sea is a triple-plate junction (between the Australian, Pacific, and Southeast Asian plates) just north of Darwin and is considered an upwelling mantle vortex underlying the low-pressure cell of ENSO. Active surge channels, or geostreams, defined by the newer surge model link these planetary-scale tectonic vortices. The original lead for a trans-Pacific megatrend was from the works of the late A.A. Meyerhoff. He brought attention to this region with the publication of Surge Tectonics: A New Hypothesis of Earth Dynamics [1, 2]. His insight was based on many years of field study for oil exploration in Southeast Asia, the former USSR, and China, as well as on his background in fluid dynamics. In addition, high-pass-filtered satellite altimetry data from the Geodetic Earth-Orbiting Satellite (GEOSAT) reveal across-basin trends in the gravity geoid.

Hurricane Irma 2017: Relationships with Lightning, Gravity, and Earthquakes (Update – Coronal Holes and Hurricane Dorian 2019)
Bruce Leybourne
(Pages: 113-121)

Hurricane Irma, 2017, along with other storm systems (Fig. 1) howling winds and grounding lightning (Fig. 2), tracked Caribbean mantle circuits along the tectonic trenches of Puerto Rico and Cuba. Mantle circuit trends can be mapped with mantle gravity signatures (Fig. 3). Irma turned north from Cuba making south Florida landfall, 30 miles southeast of Ft. Meyers, precisely where concentration of lightning hotspot activity shifted to in 2016 [2]. Previously the North American lightning hotspot was located in the Tampa Bay region. This lightning shift to Ft. Meyers correlates to a global shift of lighting activity from the African Congo to Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela. Our research indicates the shift in lighting activity signals a charging phase of the East Pacific Rise (EPR)… the Earth’s largest mantle circuit [3]. This circuit grounds and modulates lighting activity to the South Pole. EPR mantle circuits activate in phase with increases in Venezuelan and Florida lightning as well as a seismic activation [4] of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The Southeast Indian Ridge mantle circuit provides the South Polar grounding link to lighting activity in the Congo. Solar magnetic space weather activates Stellar Transformer mantle induction circuits during large variations in magnetism. This episodic activation modulates hurricane frequency, lightning hotspot activity influences earthquake and volcanic activity and has links to certain types of wildfire outbreak [5].

Electrical Wildfire Propagation Along Geomagnetic Anomalies: A Solar Induction Process (Update – 2018 Wildfire in Paradise Lost)
Bruce Leybourne, Andy Hass, Bill Orr, Chris Smoot, Ismail Bhat, David Lewis, Giovanni P. Gregori, Tom Reed
(Pages: 122-126)

Recent wildfire outbreaks during a period of geomagnetic storms in October 2003 may be linked to electrical emanations from within the earth. Efforts to understand the behavior of these fire outbreaks and create forecasting tools is an ongoing commercial development linked to new theoretical considerations in tectonics and geomagnetic induction from solar coupling. Historical evidence from the most powerful space storm on record in September 1859, hints at the relationship to wildfires when telegraph wires shorted out in the United States and Europe, igniting widespread fires1. The strong solar storms that hit Earth in the final week of October 2003 were small in comparison to the 1859 [1] event but may have electromagnetically induced an arced shaped pattern of fires. The fire pattern follows crustal magnetic anomaly trends arcing eastward just north of Los Angeles then southward around San Diego extending into the Mexican Baja along the coast (Fig1).

Gulf of California Electrical Hot-Spot Hypothesis Climate and Wildfire Teleconnections (Revisited)
Bruce A. Leybourne, Giovanni P. Gregori, Cornelis F. de Hoop
(Pages: 127-130)

The prevailing view that radioactive decay is the major thermal source for the interior of the planet may create limitations in geophysical modeling efforts. New theoretical insights by Gregori 2002 [1] provide for an electrical source from the coremantle- boundary (CMB) by a tide-driven (TD) geodynamo which is enhanced by various solar induction processes. Joule heating at density boundaries within the upper mantle and base of the lithosphere from CMB electrical emanations may provide some of the hotspot energy for upper mantle melts and associated magmatism driving seafloor spreading and lithospheric rupture. Estimates of the total budget of the endogenous energy of the Earth supporting the electrical hotspot hypothesis are as follows [1].