Design and Implement a System of Wastewater Treatment
Based on Wetlands
Martha L. Dominínguez-Patińo, Antonio Rodríguez-Martínez, Luis A. Jasso-Castillo
The wetlands are considered as a natural passive cleaning of waste water. Is a process characterizes by its simplicity of operation, low or zero-energy consumption and low waste production. These consist of shallow ponds planted with plants. The processes of decontamination are performed simultaneously by its physical, chemical and biological properties.
The objectives of this work are design and implement a system of artificial wetlands as an alternative method for treating waste water produced from the Faculty of Chemistry Science and Engineering that allow to reduce the costs of operation, knowing the degree of water pollution to determine how efficient the wetland and, finally improve the health and environmental conditions of the irrigation water.
So the first step was to know the degree of water pollution and quantity to determine the wetland process variables.
The second step was to determine the kind of plants that allow reducing the water contaminants. The Manning formula was applied to evaluate the free flow and Darcy’s equation for the surface flow by wetlands. A micro-scale prototype was design and built based on buckets.
The absorption capacity of several plants (Bacopa monnieri, Nephrolepis exaltata,Tradescantia zebrine) was determined. Also we use a natural filter consisting of Tezontle (first layer), sand (second layer), gravel (third layer), sand (fourth layer), Tezontle (fifth layer), gravel (sixth layer), sand (seventh layer) and, organic substrate (eighth layer).
A wetland decreases more than 60% the cost compared to a water purification plant as everything is based biodegradable materials and not using any energy or sophisticated equipment to water filtration.
Wetlands not only help to purify the water, but also help the conservation of flora and fauna that is dependent on wet conditions, as only biodegradable materials are used there is no pollution to the ground, helping the conservation of the environment. Today we are evaluating the wastewater flow because the prototype only allows treating from 0-1 L/min.